We’ve certainly all been witness to heated debates, differences of opinion, advocates for change and proponents of the status quo over the past several months. Perhaps you can even identify with one of those roles. The outcome of the elections (which have not been determined at the time I am writing this) will certainly have an effect on the conditions in which you will have to operate over the next several months or several years. While the elections may be over as you are reading this, it is not yet time to take off your campaigning hat just yet.
There is yet another vote on the horizon that could have serious implications for thousands of architects, general contractors, builders, engineers, recyclers and demolition contractors for years to come.
In June of this year, the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) decided to delay member voting on the newest version of its LEED green building rating system. LEED 2012 was to have launched at the Greenbuild Conference in San Francisco taking place in November, but instead the now renamed LEED v4 has entered a fifth public comment period, which began Oct. 2 and runs through Dec. 10, 2012. There are several credits open for comment in the Material & Resources section of the proposed new LEED Scorecard that will directly affect how building materials are used and recycled.
On its website, www.usgbc.org, the USGBC says since the opening of the first public comment period, it has received more than 21,500 comments and recommendations.
In addition to the delay and additional public comment period, the USGBC will initiate a beta test of LEED v4. According to the USGBC website, the goal of the beta test, in direct response to market demand, is to have project teams across market sectors engage with a pre-ballot version of LEED v4 “to help USGBC improve aspects of the LEED v4 program, identify challenges with proposed documentation and areas in need of additional education development.”
If the sentiments of C&D recyclers voiced during the C&D Recycling Forum in Long Beach, Calif., in September are representative of the industry, then it is clear, the industry needs to step forward.
“We really made a big difference last time,” Jason Haus of Dem-Con Companies LLC, Shakopee, Minn., told attendees referring to the comment period that took place prior to the 2009 LEED Scorecard being adopted.
The USGBC also is encouraging stakeholders take the opportunity to comment. “We need your voice now during the public comment period, through beta and during the ballot,” the USGBC website urges. So while your political campaigning might be over, you can still let your voice be heard to the U.S. Green Building Council.
There is much to be said about the value of a solid working relationship between an equipment user and his dealer or supplier. Truly committed equipment dealer will do more than just answer a call or provide spare parts when needed. They will understand—in many cases, even anticipate—their customer’s needs. They will get actively involved with their customer’s business, looking for ways in which they can play a role in making it better. They will act as a conduit, if necessary, between the customer and the equipment manufacturer when concerns need to be voiced or a suggestion for a design change made. They will help that customer explore new markets for their products or make existing ones better and more profitable. And mostly, they will appreciate the fact that their customer’s success ultimately means success for everyone involved. Conversely, the customer has to have a high level of confidence in those relationships to help make that happen.
Nowhere is such a relationship more evident than the one that exists between Covey Tree, its equipment supplier, L.C. Whitford, its dealer representative Bob Miller, and its equipment manufacturer, Morbark. Because each party understands the role they play and the particular expertise they bring to bear, Covey has recently undergone a dramatic change in its business focus. As a result, the possibility for future growth—and additional equipment purchases—looms very large. A win-win for all involved if ever there was one.
Change in Direction
Started in 1991 as a professional residential and commercial tree service company, Covey Tree grew its business over the years to include right-of-way contracts with divisions of the Western New York Dept. of Transportation (NY DOT) as well as with more than 40 municipalities throughout the area. In 2010, when an opportunity arose to purchase an existing chipping operation and add a new dimension to the business, they did so, based on equal parts instinct and vision.
“Because our chipping operation came with a Morbark 50-48 chipper, we also reached out to Bob Miller, the dealer rep from L.C. Whitford who originally sold the unit and have valued his input ever since,” says Matt Ekstrom, Covey Tree’s sales manager. “That’s not to say we hadn’t done our homework; we actually had about a year’s worth of research under our belts at this time. But we wanted to do it right and knew what a valued resource Bob could be, so we’ve worked hard to keep him in the loop and it’s really helped us.”
Despite having some expertise in chipping, Covey Tree knew it had its work cut out for it, citing the seismic shift that’s taken place in the chipping market. Years ago, according to company founder and owner, Kevin Covey, a landowner with high-dollar trees on his property would pay a company like his to come in and cull out the aspen and poplar.
“Today, things have been turned around 180 degrees to where we are now paying them for the right to come in and cut,” he says. “But the market for fiber has undergone some serious changes which have made that happen. We simply have to adjust to those changes.”
The changes to which Covey refers have been in the making for some time now, as wood fiber in all dimensions, sizes and colors grows in popularity and usage. Where once only large facilities could or would invest in biomass, smaller ones are now seeing the feasibility of making a change. Products which were once solely made from virgin timber are now being molded from pressed wood fiber. Even a product as innocuous as wood mulch, is, in many cases, becoming a specialized commodity. Meeting those newfound needs takes a company geared up for the challenges it presents, and Covey Tree meets those demands nicely, says Bob Miller.
“People have always asked for chips and, for the most part, chips have always been a byproduct of the logging operation,” he says. “But, for a number of reasons, that seems to be changing today. Most important of those is the fact that, as biofuel, pellets and other products grow in popularity, there is a much greater demand for chips and less demand for the things that initially made them a byproduct. What that means is companies like Covey’s who, in the past, could have simply blown chips into a van and called it a day, now have a wealth of options available to them for new products, new customers, and new markets. In a sense, they’ve become a custom chip manufacturer.”
Using what they have
And that’s where the relationship between Covey, L.C. Whitford and Morbark has paid dividends. Getting the right machine for the application, making sure it is outfitted correctly, seeing what ancillary equipment might improve the process even further, and so on, have all been made easier. Covey Tree, for example, has a customer that demands a specialized chip and working with Bob Miller and Morbark now has a machine which is dedicated solely to that customer.
“But that particular product is a log-only chip,” Ekstrom says, “meaning we are cutting down a tree and using only the bottom one-third of it. Our whole goal has always been centered around sustainability, so it is up to us to ensure that we have markets for the remaining two-thirds: the twigs, the leaves and so on. We are working hard to make that happen and Bob is as committed as any of us to seeing that through.”
Year-Round Production Goal
Fortunately for them, markets for new products seem to appear almost daily, as technology evolves and more and more people see trees as an excellent resource. It also doesn’t hurt that Covey Tree is located in an area surrounded by pellet mills and potential biomass customers. Nevertheless, their market plan stresses product diversity.
“In the last year we learned that having as many products as possible would be key, so that, depending upon the time of the year, we have a product that is in demand,” Covey says. “The flake and particle board market, which goes hand-in-hand with the housing industry, essentially shuts down for winter out here. Co-fired biomass customers can flip the switch whenever they want, based on pricing. Straight biomass customers often need product 24/7. Then, of course, there is the mulch market where it is three months feast and nine months inventory. The bottom line is, some customers are always out there, and they are often demanding a very specific product which I feel we are well-suited to providing.”
How specific that product can be sometimes borders on the unbelievable. Ekstrom says they are currently working with a customer who wants them to get a specific breed of tree, in a very particular color, and they want it reduced to a very specific size. “As challenging as that sounds, that type of customer—and others like them—will ultimately drive our success,” he says. “We are lucky to have aligned ourselves with companies like L.C. Whitford and Morbark who share our vision for where the industry is headed. Morbark has been excellent in working with us to customize our machines to better meet our particular needs. They’ve played a huge role in our success to date. I know for a fact that other manufacturers would not be so accommodating.”
Maintaining the resource
Getting to a point where they will be able to meet everyone’s needs and sustain steady growth will take a concerted effort and demand a huge supply of timber. Ekstrom says the general impression people get when they learn about an operation of that size is a real fear of overtaxing the timber supply.
“And we understand that,” he says. “Coming from a tree-service background, sustainability is very important to us; the last thing we want to do is deplete the resource upon which we rely. However, a recent 142-page feasibility study from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) shows that, as of 2010, tree growth was outpacing cutting in the state by about 60 percent. This, despite all the new focus on biomass, all the new demands for fiber-based products and so on. That’s great news and shows that the efforts of both forestry professionals and companies like ours who focus on replanting have been effective.”
In keeping with its focus on strategic expansion, Covey Tree recently acquired the shuttered Ellington Hardwood sawmill in Frewsburg, N.Y., which it hopes to one day reopen and bring more employment to the area.
Kevin Covey says he has been blessed with a great team of people (all locals) who make up his company and sees the growth of his company as good not just for the principals and key players but for everyone involved.
“Our development has really come about in steps,” he says. “When we first got the Morbark chippers we knew we were going to make specialized chips for several custom applications, but in order to keep up with the chipper, we had to invest in a harvesting crew. In order to move the product fast enough, we had to invest in a trucking company. In order to keep all three of those groups working, we had to make sure we had outlets available for the custom products.
Morbark’s sales tag is “Equipment that creates opportunities for success.” Covey Tree is that tagline at work. There used to be 15 full-time people employed at Ellington Hardwood and they are all working again for Covey doing everything from administrative work to mechanics to driving to harvesting to equipment operation.
“And, in addition to those, we have a dozen cut and skid crews with two men per crew,” he says. “So it is not just opportunities for us; it is opportunities for everyone involved in our business, opportunities for the local economy. We’ve really only been in business for a year and I think we can all be proud of what we’ve accomplished in that time and excited about what lies ahead.”
This story was submitted on behalf of Morbark Inc., Winn, Mich.
Sheehan Haulage & Plant Hire recently enhanced its construction and demolition debris recycling infrastructure in Oxford, United Kingdom, following a multi-million dollar investment in a new wet processing plant from U.K.-based CDE Global.
Persistence was the key to success in this instance as the result of an extended planning and appeals process. The Sheehan Group originally proposed the new recycling plant in May 2006 and the plant was finally commissioned in June 2012.
“We knew that there was a need for investment in more advanced recycling technology for construction and demolition waste in the Oxford area and have fought for the last five years to have this recognized,” says Chris Sheehan, managing director of The Sheehan Group. “While we regret the loss of 500,000 metric tons of C&D waste recycling due to the planning process, we are now pleased to say that the new plant offers our customers a greatly improved product offer with a wide range of high value applications.”
The new facility is located at the Dix Pit complex in Stanton Harcourt which covers approximately 150 hectares (370 acres). The site has previously been used as a sand and gravel deposit and today The Sheehan Group has a variety of industrial and commercial neighbors including a batching plant and a household recycling center. In addition to the supply of sustainable aggregates and construction materials, The Sheehan Group also is a groundwork and civil engineering contractor as well as being involved with plant hire and waste removal and reclamation.
Maximizing material recovery
Before operating from the Dix Pit complex, The Sheehan Group had an existing recycling facility at Slape Hill, near the village of Woodstock on which the lease expires in 2014. This facility employed dry crushing and screening to process 60,000 metric tons per year of construction and demolition waste which was primarily applied in low value applications such as cover or general fill. “The enhanced recycling capability that our new washing plant offers enables us to progress this material up the waste hierarchy and offer a real alternative to virgin aggregates,” explains Tara Sheehan, financial controller with The Sheehan Group.
All of the C&D material that The Sheehan Group handle is now processed through the new CDE washing plant at Dix Pit with the license permitting 100,000 metric tons per year. In addition to the 60,000 metric tons of material processed at the previous site, an additional 50,000 metric tons was being sent to landfill each year as a result of the limited capability of the crushing and dry screening plant. “Getting the washing plant up and running earlier would have saved us sending this large volume of material to landfill for the last five years,” says Chris Sheehan. “The advanced processing methods that we have introduced maximize material recovery when compared to dry processing, which is why we fought so hard to win the right the install the new plant.”
The primary source of feed material for the Dix Pit plant is within Oxfordshire with a smaller amount coming from surrounding counties such as Buckinghamshire. External haulers are bringing material from the fringes of greater London.
The washing plant contains a range of equipment from the CDE product portfolio including a feed system, AggMax portable logwasher, Prograde aggregate screens and Evowash sand washing plant. In addition, the system employs full closed circuit water recycling with the inclusion of the Aquacycle thickener and GHT Filter Press.
|Scrubbed aggregates are delivered to the dewatering screen (pictured) for a final rinse before the aggregate sizing phase.|
As material is delivered to the plant, an overband magnet on the feed conveyor removes any metals before it is sent to the AggMax. This involves four stages of processing on a single unit pre-screening, attrition, trash removal and aggregate dewatering.
The pre-screening stage allows for any minus 5 millimeter particles to be liberated and delivered to the sand washing phase. The plus-5-millimeter aggregate material enters the integrated Rotomax logwasher and is subjected to a high level of attrition from the twin shaft machine. This further liberates more minus 5 millimeter material while also floating off any lightweight contamination at the rear of the unit. This is subsequently dewatered on the trash screen and while the trash material—plastics, polystyrene, rubber, wood—is discharged into a bay, the minus-5-millimeter material and waste water are also sent to the Evowash sand washing plant to maximize recovery of the sand fraction.
As the scrubbed aggregates are discharged from the Rotomax, they are delivered to a dewatering screen where they are given a final rinse before being sent to the aggregate sizing phase. On this project, a Prograde P275 dry sizing screen produces four recycled aggregate products: 5 to 10 millimeter; 10 to 20 millimeter; 20 to 40 millimeter; and plus-40 millimeter. The minus 5 millimeter material is washed to produce two recycled sand products via the Evowash 102 dual sand plant.
The water treatment phase first involves the Aquacycle thickener which receives waste water from the Evowash containing the minus-63-micron particles. The Aquacycle design allows for high-rate settlement of these fine particles to the bottom of the thickener tank while the recycled water overflows to a concrete water recirculation tank before being recycled to the washing plant. A lightweights removal screen ensures that any material such as polystyrene that has not been captured does not re-enter the water circuit.
The settled sludge from the Aquacycle thickener is then delivered to a concrete buffer tank before being sent to the GHT Filter Press to maximize water recycling. In this instance, the filter press is made up of 140 plates which press the sludge at extremely high pressure to remove the maximum volume of water. The waste material is then compressed to a filter cake containing 90 percent dry solids content which is dropped from the filter press into a bay below.
Fully operational since June 2012, The Sheehan Group reports that the new washing plant has achieved what was intended of it with all of the recycled sand and aggregate products proving very popular with customers. The end uses for the material to date have included pipe bedding, drainage material and paving. The recycled sands are being applied in concrete manufacture and concrete block making.
Approximately 50 percent of the material is used by The Sheehan Group on its own construction and civil engineering projects with the remaining 50 percent sold to the local private construction market. “We are transporting material within a 25-mile radius when using it on our own projects, but haulers collecting material ex-pit are moving it further than this,” explains Chris Sheehan. “All the demand at the minute has come from the private sector but we are currently tendering with various local authorities in the hope that they will come on board and embrace the use of recycled materials on their own projects.”
Expanding on this, Tara Sheehan believes that the increased focus on sustainability and ethically sound operations is also having an effect on demand. “We have noticed among the private sector contractors that those operating within the Considerate Constructors Scheme have been very receptive to the idea of using more recycled materials,” she explains. “They see it is a way of reinforcing their position as leading the industry in relation to the sustainability agenda.”
In contrast, the level of interest from the local quarry operators has not been as strong. “Several local operators have visited the new plant and sampled material, but we don’t have any firm commitments to purchase recycled materials,” Chris Sheehan says. “Given the business case that exists for recycled material, not to mention the potential that it offers for us to protect aggregate supply for the long term, I am surprised at this approach.”
The Dix Pit site was opened to the public Sept. 11-14, 2012 as the Sheehan Group and CDE Global combined an Open Week event.
This story was submitted by U.K.-based equipment company CDE Global and C&D recycling company, Sheehan Haulage & Plant Hire. More information about the companies is available at www.cdeglobal.com and at www.sheehancontractors.co.uk.
There are few summaries of the construction and demolition sectors covering the past two years that would refer to activity levels as booming.
However, the nation’s largest demolition contractors have reported revenue figures for 2011 that point to their ability to find work even in a challenging business environment.
Most of the nation’s largest demolition firms reported 2011 revenue figures that were higher than their reported figure for 2009, when the construction industry was really considered to be in a trough. Chicago’s Brandenburg Industrial Service Co., for instance, rebounded from a $110 million year in 2009 to a 2011 figure of $160 million in revenue.
On the Pacific Coast, the NCM Group (the company formed by the merger of Nuprecon and CST Holdings) rebounded similarly, having grown from a $160 million revenue figure in 2009 to $220 million last year.
There is a new company atop the list—New York City-based LVI Services. On its website, www.lviservices.com, the more than two decades old company notes that it “started out primarily in the asbestos and lead abatement markets, [but] today we offer complete services from abatement to mold remediation to complete demolition and cleanup of properties.”
The company says one of its largest growth areas has been in the emergency/disaster response business. “With our First Alert contracts, customers can pre-negotiate rates and contracts to help ensure that their businesses are back online as quickly as possible,” LVI says.
Also new to the 20 Largest Demolition Contractors list in 2012 are Massachusetts-based NASDI Inc. and Baltimore-based Potts & Callahan.
|Click the image above to see the List of the Largest Demolition Contractors|
How 2012 final revenue figures will shape up or what 2013 will bring is unclear. The Associated General Contractors (AGC), Arlington, Va., says the construction industry managed to add 5,000 jobs in September 2012, but the group expressed caution heading into the year’s final quarter. “Residential building contractors added 1,100 jobs in September and have gained 3,200 for the year,” the AGC said in an early October news release. “Meanwhile, residential specialty trade contractors added 2,300 jobs in September and 19,700 for the year.”
On the cautionary side, however, AGC added, “Non-residential building contractors added 1,100 jobs in September, but have lost 12,400 during the past 12 months. Non-residential specialty trade contractors added 1,500 jobs for the month, but lost 30,000 for the year.” Conversely, “The heavy and civil engineering construction sector lost 200 jobs in September, but has added 14,600 since September 2011.”
An incomplete grade?
As our publication does with each list of this type, a disclaimer needs to be issued. To compile this list, the editors of Construction & Demolition Recycling solicited larger companies who are likely contenders for the list. While the editors are gratified for the responses received, it also is true that several of the largest companies declined to participate or could not be reached. In some cases, estimates were made after consulting with industry sources and conducting Internet searches.
We also used an average revenue growth formula (based on responses received) to update some revenue figures. For those companies who were missed by us or who did not respond this time around, we hope to make better connections for the 2014 version of this list.
If you work for one of these companies or know of another company that you suspect should be on this list but was not contacted (or did not respond), please let us know. Managing Editor Kristin Smith can be contacted via email at email@example.com or can be reached by phone at (330) 523-5361.
The author is editorial director of Construction & Demolition Recycling and can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Raise a little dust!” Gran ma would advise the kids cleaning up her porch.
Grandma did not have to deal with OSHA, the EPA or local regulating bodies. C&D recyclers, however, must spend almost as much time with directives as they do with dust.
“You always have to keep dust down,” warns Tom Kovesci, general manager at Stone Products, Canton, Ohio. “Creating a cloud of dust is a good way to get the EPA involved in your job.”
On many C&D job sites today, everything that is crushed has to go back onto the site. It also makes good economic sense to eliminate both the cost of hauling C&D to a landfill, not to mention ever-increasing cost of landfilling. In general, the fines produced on a job can be use as a filler-type product or used as a base rock. One of the easier materials to reuse is screened 304 concrete. In most jurisdictions, 304 can be used as a base anywhere.
While there are good uses for the material, the challenge remains of reducing the bulk material to a usable size while staying within the guidelines of local air quality rules. The most common method of reducing dust is to spray the material as it moves through the crushing process. However, there is a delicate balance between dampening material to keep the dust down and creating a mud bath.
“If the material gets too wet, you can’t screen the fines,” Kovesci says. The amount of water and the technique used to apply the water to the material will vary by material, job site and by conditions. Kovesci says the major consideration is the material being handled.
“The most common uses for fines produced by concrete crushing are base material, fill or road underlayment,” says Gary Pederson, vice president of sales for Major Wire Industries Limited, Candiac, Quebec, Canada. Screening blacktop generally is done at five-eighths/minus. Most C&D sites will take concrete to 304 limestone screened at one-and-a-half inches/minus. There, fines typically are not removed.
Pederson says there are several ways screens can be configured depending on the material requirements. It is common to have one screen deck screening material at one to one-and-a-half inches to make base material, with a second deck screening material at a quarter-inch or so to make fines.
Kovesci says the Flex-mat screens they have do a good job for screening fines.
Practical considerations dictate that all prepared material will not be used as soon as it is created. That means the fines have to be stacked.
“Typically, when dealing with fines, the best way to stockpile is through use of a telescoping stacker with a non-segregation PLC,” says Patrick Reaver, sales manager with Astec Industries, Sterling, Ill. This allows the user to keep the head pulley close to the stockpile to eliminate segregation and material blowing and drifting, he says.
“In concrete the fines are best used as infill. With RAP, the fines are best used back into an HMA product,” Reaver says.
Pederson says he finds that base material is a common use if the fines are “clean.” If the fines have a lot of dirt or foreign materials, they are commonly used for fill or road underlayment. Some of the heaviest concentrations of dirt can be eliminated from the get-go if the bulldozer and loader operators are aware of the need to produce a clean product.
By not scooping too deeply, they can keep subsoil out of the mix. Removal of the rebar or wire mesh used in the initial construction of a roadbed or other project is one of the other things a C&D recycler needs to deal with. Rebar is tougher to keep out of the mix and can be diverted at the crusher.
The final application for the fines will vary by geography. “In certain areas of the United States, where fines are needed for compaction, they will have a higher value,” Pederson says.
Reducing fines is best and most efficiently achieved by getting the proper crusher setting. With impactors, speed reductions and curtain settings will help reduce the amount of fines.
“When trying to get high volumes of fines pulled out of the material we prefer to use a high frequency screen,” Reaver says. While he notes that any recommendation depends on what one is trying to achieve, he says they try to cut the fines as small as conditions will allow.
“Crusher setting is important in that you do not want the material to stay in the circuit any longer than necessary,” says Ron Griess, Yankton, S.D.-based KPI/JCI product manager. Equally important is screening, he continues, saying, if the screen is not efficient, you will also retain material longer than needed.
“Crusher speed and crusher settings need to be set for the application,” Griess says. He emphasizes that the speed needs to be set to get good penetration. “The crusher setting needs to be set to get the best efficiency for the application,” he continues.
The longer the material spends in the circuit the finer it gets.
“The more efficient you are at getting the material to the desired size the first time around the less amount of time you will spend in the circuit,” Griess says.
If a project involves large amounts of in-feed or surging in the circuit, the screen will be less efficient. The result is wasteful: material will go back to the crusher that is already to size.
On top of that, Griess says, material going back to be crushed when it is already to size will increase fines and generate unwanted dust.
“When crushing concrete it is very important to incorporate dust suppression,” Reaver states. He says the preferable spots are right before the impactor, right after the impactor, and at the conveyor discharge points.
Stockpiling concrete fines presents its own unique challenges, Pederson says. If the material is stockpiled too long and is exposed to high moisture (especially heavy rainfall between the time it is stacked and the time it is used) the stockpile will tend to harden or “set up,” he says.
“The best alternatives are to use the material as soon as possible after screening or, depending on the size of the pile and if it is feasible, to cover the stock piles,” Pederson says.
On the other hand, there are times when a contractor needs to apply more water to the fines to assure compliance with dust suppression regulations. There are several ways to get water onto the material being run. “Misters seem to work well,” Kovesci says. He recommends misting the material at the point where it is dumped from one conveyor to another.
“Don’t soak it down,” he advises. Turning dust and fines into a muddy slurry is a recipe for disaster. “Once it gets muddy, it has to dry out,” Kovesci says. That typically means the entire process will be slowed for at least a day as the water leaches out.
“When using dust suppression a high pressure low volume system is preferred to get the best results,” Reaver says.
Water fogging dust suppressors will allow the producer to reduce the amount of dust without making the material too wet. “Wet material will increase the chances of your screening material blinding and reduce production,” Pederson warns.
Self-cleaning screen cloth will help control the amount of blinding and help to remove more fines from the base materials being produced.
Keep Dust Out
Another option for removing dust is to use a vacuum-style dust collection unit. These work well on confined job sites where there is not a lot of room either to stockpile fines or where other buildings are close by and absolutely none of the dust can be allowed to escape.
It sounds simplistic, but the best way to reduce the amount of dust being handled is not to make dust in the first place.
The types of crushers used will make a difference on the amount of fines produced. “Compression crushers will tend to make less fines than impact crushers,” Pederson says. “The speed of HIS or VSI impact crushers will also have an effect on the amount of fines produced.
“The size of the material is important to the size of the crusher and its ability to handle the reduction ratio required to be efficient at the crusher’s CSS (closed side setting),” Griess says.
Slower speeds on impact crushers will reduce fines. The use of compression type crushers (jaws, cones) will help to reduce fines.
“Review these options with your crusher supplier or manufacturer,” Pederson concludes.
The author is a freelance writer living in the Cleveland area. He can be contacted at email@example.com.